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Nemeth Braille Code for Mathematics and Science
1972 Revision
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RULE XV--RADICALS

Radical (square root)
>
Example as described in the content
verbose
StartRoot
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Radical Indicators
  • Index-of-Radical
    <
    verbose
    RootIndex
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  • Order-of-Radical
    • First inner radical
      .
    • Second inner radical
      ..
    • Third inner radical
      ...
  • Termination
    ]
    verbose
    EndRoot
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§103. Simple Radicals: The most commonly occurring radical is the square root.

a. When the square root sign has a vinculum (horizontal bar) which specifies the extent to which the radical sign is effective, the transcription of such a radical is accomplished by the following three steps:

i.The radical symbol >
ii.The expression to which it applies (radicand).
iii.The termination indicator ]

b. When the square root sign occurs without a radicand, as when attention is being called to a sign in ink print, or when the extent to which the radical is effective is not indicated in ink print by the vinculum, the termination indicator must be omitted.

§104. Index of Radical: Radicals of index other than 2 require a specific index. The transcription of such a radical is accomplished by the following three steps:


§105. Nested Radicals: Occasionally, radicals are nested one within the other. The first inner radical is then regarded as having a depth of order 1, the second inner radical as having a depth of order 2, and so on. In such cases, the order-of-radical indicator (dots 4-6) must be repeated before both the radical symbol and its associated termination indicator as many times as it is necessary to indicate the depth of that radical. If one of the inner radicals is associated with an index, the proper number of order-of-radical indicators must be placed before the index-of-radical indicator rather than before the radical symbol itself. The order-of-radical indicators are provided for the purpose of enabling the reader to keep track of the depth of the radical to which it applies.