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Nemeth Braille Code for Mathematics and Science
1972 Revision
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RULE XIX--SIGNS AND SYMBOLS OF OPERATION

About 95% of the expressions on this page are considered correct for the default MathSpeak settings, so some of the expressions do not yet adhere to the MathSpeak grammar.

Please refer to the Table of Contents page to find Rules that have been thoroughly modified and proofed.


Ampersand (and, logical product)
_&
Example as described in the content
verbose
Ampersand
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Asterisk
@#
Example as described in the content
verbose
asterisk
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Back Slash (divides, is a factor of)
_*
Example as described in the content
verbose
backslash
Listen to MathSpeak
Circle with Interior Dot
$c_$*]
Example as described in the content
verbose
circled-dot
Listen to MathSpeak
Circle with Interior Plus
$c_$+]
Example as described in the content
verbose
circled-plus
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Circle with Interior Minus
$c_$-]
Example as described in the content
verbose
circled-minus
Listen to MathSpeak
Dagger
  • Single
    _]
    Example as described in the content
    verbose
    dagger
    Listen to MathSpeak
  • Double
    __]
    Example as described in the content
    verbose
    double-dagger
    Listen to MathSpeak
Divison (divided by)
./
Example as described in the content
verbose
Division-sign
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Dot (and)
*
Example as described in the content
verbose
dot
Listen to MathSpeak
Fraction Line (over)
  • Diagonal
    _/
    Example as described in the content
    verbose
    Over
    Listen to MathSpeak
  • Simple
    /
    Example as described in the content
    verbose
    Over
    Listen to MathSpeak
  • Diagonal Complex
    ,_/
    Example as described in the content
    verbose
    OverOver
    Listen to MathSpeak
  • Complex
    ,/
    Example as described in the content
    verbose
    OverOver
    Listen to MathSpeak
  • Hypercomplex
    ,,/
    Example as described in the content
    verbose
    OverOverOver
    Listen to MathSpeak
Hollow Dot
.*
Example as described in the content
verbose
circle
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Intersection (cap)
.%
Example as described in the content
verbose
Intersection
Listen to MathSpeak
Logical Product (and, meet)
@%
Example as described in the content
verbose
Logical-and
Listen to MathSpeak
Logical Sum (join, or)
@+
Example as described in the content
verbose
Logical-or
Listen to MathSpeak
Minus
  • Regular
    -
    Example as described in the content
    verbose
    minus
    Listen to MathSpeak
  • Boldface
    _-
    Example as described in the content
    verbose
    Bold minus
    Listen to MathSpeak
Minus Followed by Plus
  • Boldface Minus Followed by Boldface Plus
    _-"_+
    Example as described in the content
    verbose
    Bold minus Bold plus
    Listen to MathSpeak
  • Boldface Minus Followed by Regular Plus
    _-"+
    Example as described in the content
    verbose
    Bold minus plus
    Listen to MathSpeak
  • Regular Minus Followed by Regular Plus
    -"+
    Example as described in the content
    verbose
    minus plus
    Listen to MathSpeak
  • Regular Minus Followed by Boldface Plus
    -"_+
    Example as described in the content
    verbose
    minus Bold plus
    Listen to MathSpeak
Minus or Plus
-+
Example as described in the content
verbose
minus-or-plus
Listen to MathSpeak
Minus with Dot over (proper difference)
.-
Example as described in the content
verbose
dotted-minus
Listen to MathSpeak
Multiplication (times)
  • Cross (cartesian product)
    @*
    Example as described in the content
    verbose
    cross
    Listen to MathSpeak
  • Dot
    *
    Example as described in the content
    verbose
    dot
    Listen to MathSpeak
Number Sign; Crosshatch; Tic-tac-toe; Pounds (weight)
.#
Example as described in the content
verbose
Number-sign
Listen to MathSpeak
Paragraph Mark
@,p
Example as described in the content
verbose
paragraph-mark
Listen to MathSpeak
Plus
  • Regular
    +
    Example as described in the content
    verbose
    plus
    Listen to MathSpeak
  • Boldface
    _+
    Example as described in the content
    verbose
    Bold plus
    Listen to MathSpeak
Plus Followed by Minus
  • Boldface Plus Followed by Boldface Minus
    _+"_-
    Example as described in the content
    verbose
    Bold plus Bold minus
    Listen to MathSpeak
  • Boldface Plus Followed by Regular Minus
    _+"-
    Example as described in the content
    verbose
    Bold plus minus
    Listen to MathSpeak
  • Regular Plus Followed by Regular Minus
    +"-
    Example as described in the content
    verbose
    plus minus
    Listen to MathSpeak
  • Regular Plus Followed by Boldface Minus
    +"_-
    Example as described in the content
    verbose
    plus Bold minus
    Listen to MathSpeak
Plus or Minus
+-
Example as described in the content
verbose
plus-or-minus
Listen to MathSpeak
Section Mark
@,s
Example as described in the content
verbose
section-mark
Listen to MathSpeak
Slash (per, over, divided by)
_/
Example as described in the content
verbose
slash
Listen to MathSpeak
Square
  • Filled-In Square
    $_4
    Example as described in the content
    verbose
    filled-in-square
    Listen to MathSpeak
  • Hollow Square
    $4
    Example as described in the content
    verbose
    square
    Listen to MathSpeak
Star
$s
Example as described in the content
verbose
figure-star
Listen to MathSpeak
Tilde
  • Extended
    @,:
    Example as described in the content
    verbose
    extended tilde
    Listen to MathSpeak
  • Simple
    @:
    Example as described in the content
    verbose
    tilde
    Listen to MathSpeak
Union (cup)
.+
Example as described in the content
verbose
Union
Listen to MathSpeak
Vertical Bar (is a factor, divides)
\
Example as described in the content
verbose
vertical-line
Listen to MathSpeak

§129. Ampersand: When the ampersand is used in literary context, and without reference to the specific nature of the sign itself, it should not be regarded as a sign of operation, and accordingly, the rules of English Braille apply. Otherwise, the symbol in the above list must be used.

§130. Asterisk, Dagger, Double Dagger, Number Sign, Paragraph Mark, Section Mark, Star: The asterisk, dagger, double dagger, number sign, paragraph mark, section mark, and star must be represented by the symbols provided for them in this Code; the English Braille symbols must be avoided even when the corresponding signs are used for purposes of reference.

§131. Fraction Lines: For a complete discussion of the rules governing fractions see Rule XII.

§132. Intersection, Union: When the intersection sign or the union sign is modified by a superscribed bar, a subscribed bar, or both, the combination is not longer a sign of operation but a sign of comparison compounded vertically (see §147).

            These signs are frequently modified below, and are consequently printed wide enough to accommodate the modifier. The variable width of these signs must be ignored in the transcription. Superscripts or subscripts which are sometimes attached to these signs must be treated in the usual manner for handling superscripts and subscripts.

§133. Logical Product, Logical Sum: When the signs for logical product or logical sum are modified by a superscribed bar, a subscribed bar, or both, the combination is no longer a sign of operation but a sign of comparison compounded vertically (see §147).

§134. Minus Followed by Plus, Plus Followed by Minus, Minus or Plus, Plus or Minus: When the signs for plus and minus are combined either vertically or horizontally, the combination must be regarded as a single sign of operation. Its components must not be divided between braille lines in the transcription.

§135. Multiplication: The two common multiplication signs,  cross and dot, must not be used interchangeably in the transcription. The cross is sometimes modified below.

§136. Slash: The slash must be represented by the symbol provided for it in this Code. The English Braille symbol must not be used.

§137. Tilde: This sign of operation is used predominantly in logic with the meaning of not.

§138. Spacing with Symbols of Operation:

a. A space must be left on either side of an operation symbol under any of the circumstances listed below.

b. A space must not be left on either side of a symbol of operation in any other situation.