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Nemeth Braille Code for Mathematics and Science
1972 Revision
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RULE VI--PUNCTUATION SIGNS AND SYMBOLS

Punctuation Indicator _
Punctuation Marks
  • Apostrophe
    '
    Example as described in the content
    verbose
    apostrophe
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  • Colon
    3
    Example as described in the content
    verbose
    colon
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Comma
  • Literary
    1
    Example as described in the content
    verbose
    comma
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  • Mathematical
    ,
    Example as described in the content
    verbose
    comma
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Dash
  • Short
    --
    Example as described in the content
    verbose
    minus
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  • Long
    ----
    Example as described in the content
    verbose
    large-dash
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Ellipsis
'''
Example as described in the content
verbose
ellipsis
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Exclamation Point
6
Example as described in the content
verbose
Exclamation-mark
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Hyphen
-
Example as described in the content
verbose
hyphen
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Period
4
Example as described in the content
verbose
period
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Question Mark
8
Example as described in the content
verbose
question-mark
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Quotation Marks
  • Left inner
    ,8
    Example as described in the content
    verbose
    left-single-quote
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  • Left outer
    8
    Example as described in the content
    verbose
    left-quote
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  • Right inner
    0'
    Example as described in the content
    verbose
    right-single-quote
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  • Right outer
    0
    Example as described in the content
    verbose
    right-quote
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Semicolon
2
Example as described in the content
verbose
semicolon
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§36. Modes of Punctuation: Since numerals are represented by symbols in the lower part of the cell, and since these symbols also serve as punctuation marks, it is necessary to formulate rules concerning punctuation so that the meanings of such symbols are unambiguous. This Code employs two modes of punctuation--mathematical and literary.

§37. Use of the Punctuation Indicator: Subject to the provisions of §38, the punctuation indicator must be used before a punctuation mark and after any symbol of the type listed below. In all these circumstances, the mode of punctuation is considered to be mathematical.

i. After any braille indicator.

§38. Non-Use of the Punctuation Indicator: It must not be assumed that because a punctuation mark occurs that the punctuation indicator must be used. The punctuation indicator must not be used under any of the circumstances listed below. In all these circumstances, the mode of punctuation is considered to be literary.

(1) The principal trigonometric functions are "sine", "tangent", and "secant".

§39. Plural and Possessive Endings: The apostrophe-s combination may be joined to numerals, letters, and other mathematical expressions to form their plurals or possessives. When, in ink print, the apostrophe has been omitted, it likewise must be omitted in the transcription. The choice between the singular and plural form of a word is sometimes shown by enclosing an "s" within parentheses.

§40. Colon: It must not be assumed that the colon must be followed by a space as is generally the case in English Braille.

§41. Comma:

a. When a comma is used as a mark of punctuation in a situation in which the mode of punctuation is mathematical, the comma is referred to as the mathematical comma. Otherwise, the literary comma must be used.

b. No space must be left after the comma which is used as a numeric symbol except for the purpose of achieving alignment.

§42. Dash (Long): The long dash must be preceded and followed by a space. However, no space may be left between the long dash and any of the items listed below, provided these items apply to the long dash.

§43. Ellipsis:

a. Any dot or series of dots in print which represent an omitted term, entry, or line is an ellipsis. It must be represented in braille by a minimum of three dots.

b. The ellipsis is subject to the same spacing rules as the long dash. See §42.

§44. Exclamation Point: The exclamation point is represented by the same sign of ink print as the factorial sign. The context is usually sufficiently clear in regard to this distinction so that the possibility of doubt in choosing the proper symbol is small.

§45. Hyphen: The hyphen is represented by the same sign of ink print as the minus sign. Since the corresponding braille symbols also coincide, a minimum of decision-making in this regard is required of the transcriber. A space must be left between a hyphen and an adjacent dash.