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Nemeth Braille Code for Mathematics and Science
1972 Revision
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RULE VII--REFERENCE SIGNS AND SYMBOLS

General Reference Indicator @]
Asterisk
@#
Example as described in the content
verbose
asterisk
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Dagger
  • Single
    _]
    Example as described in the content
    verbose
    dagger
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  • Double
    __]
    Example as described in the content
    verbose
    double-dagger
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Paragraph Mark
@,p
Example as described in the content
verbose
paragraph-mark
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Section Mark
  • Single
    @,s
    Example as described in the content
    verbose
    section-mark
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  • Double
    @,s@,s
    Example as described in the content
    verbose
    section-mark section-mark
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Star
$s
Example as described in the content
verbose
figure-star
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§46. Reference Signs and Symbols: The reference signs of this section must be represented by the symbols listed above and English Braille symbols must not be used. Some of these signs are also used as signs of operation and in that case the rules governing signs of operation apply (see Rule XIX). When it is certain that a symbol in the above list is to be used for reference purposes, the superscript position, if indicated in ink print, must be ignored in the transcription.

            When a reference sign occurs for which no provision exists in this code, such as darts, pictures, etc., the transcriber must devise a suitable symbol with an explanatory transcriber's note. Whether a reference symbol exists in this Code or has be devised by the transcriber, such symbols are subject to the rules for signs and symbols of references.

§47. General Reference Indicator: When a reference to a footnote is denoted by a numeral, usually in the superscript position, and no other reference sign is employed, the general reference indicator immediately followed by the numeral of the printed text must be used in the transcription and the numeral must not be represented as being in the superscript position.

§48. Spacing with Symbols of Reference:

a. When a reference sign which calls attention to or introduces a footnote is attached to a word or mathematical expression, the reference symbol must follow that word or expression with a space between. If such a reference sign is unattached its position relative to its surrounding material must be preserved, and a space must be left on either side of the reference symbol. However, if there is a punctuation which applies to such a reference, no space should be left between the reference symbol and the punctuation mark which applies to it.

b. The symbols for the section mark, paragraph mark, general reference indicator, star, asterisk, and dagger, when the asterisk or dagger does not call attention to or introduce a footnote, must be unspaced from the letter or numeral which applies to them. All reference symbols, whether or not they call attention to or introduce a footnote, must be spaced away from the words to which they apply.

c. The placement and indentation of footnotes are subject to the rules for footnotes in the "Code of Braille Textbook Formats and Techniques."