gh Nemeth Rule Viewer
Nemeth Braille Code for Mathematics and Science
1972 Revision
skip navigation bar

Select your options:





Select your rule:



RULE VIII--ABBREVIATIONS

§49. Abbreviations:

a. Abbreviations must be regarded in a broad sense to include the following items:

i. Universal literary abbreviations of the type commonly listed in a dictionary.
ii. Abbreviations of measurement.
iii. Acronyms.
iv. Personal or geographic initials.
v. Initials of agencies, organizational, etc.
vi. Special abbreviations confined to a particular field or even to a particular book.
vii. Abbreviations formed by the use of initial or principal letters of a word, phrase, or name.

b. When a letter or sequence of letters does not represent a word or phrase, it must not be considered as an abbreviation and must be transcribed according to other rules of this Code. Abbreviated function names, as well as model numbers, serial numbers, etc. must also not be considered abbreviations and must be transcribed according to other rules of this Code. When there is a doubt as to whether or not a construction is an abbreviation, it must be treated as if it were not an abbreviation.

§50. Capitalization with Abbreviations: In an abbreviation, whenever letters are capitalized in ink print, a single letter must be preceded by the single capitalization indicator, and a sequence of more than one letter must be preceded by the double capitalization indicator.

§51. English-Letter Indicator with Abbreviations:

a. When a period follows an abbreviation, there are four possibilities to consider:

i. The period applies to the abbreviation but does not end a sentence.
ii. The period ends a sentence but does not apply to the abbreviation.
iii. The period both applies to the abbreviation and ends a sentence.
iv. It is doubtful whether the period applies to the abbreviation.

In the case of ii, the English-letter indicator must be used or must not be used as if the period were not present. In case iv, the period should be considered as applying to the abbreviation and the appropriate rule must then be applied.

The use or non-use of the English-letter indicator with abbreviations does not depend upon the braille symbols with which the abbreviation may happen to be in contact, such as grouping symbols, braille indicators, fraction lines, the hyphen, or the slash.

b. The English-letter indicator must be used before an abbreviation which consists of one letter or of a combination of letters corresponding to a short-form word provided the abbreviation is not followed by a period which applies to it.

c. The English-letter indicator must not be used before an abbreviation which consists of one letter or of a combination of letters corresponding to a short-form word provided the abbreviation is followed by a period which applies to it. The English-letter indicator must also not be used before an abbreviation whose letters do not correspond to a short-form word. In this case, whether a period applies to the abbreviation or not has no effect on the rule for the non-use of the English-letter indicator.

§52. Punctuation with Abbreviations: Abbreviations must be punctuated in the literary mode, provided that the punctuation is at the same level as that abbreviation. (See §§37 and 38)

§53. Contractions in Abbreviations: No contractions may be used in an abbreviation which is in direct contact with any of the items in §55a. The abbreviation "in." or "in" usually meaning "inches" must never be contracted. The "st" contraction may only be used for abbreviating "street" or "saint". It must not be used for any other abbreviation, such as "st." for "straight".

§54. Spacing with Abbreviations:

a. In transcribing abbreviations, the English Braille techniques of transposition (writing an abbreviation in front of its number) and condensation (using braille abbreviations shorter than their ink print counterparts) must not be employed.

b. No space should be left between an abbreviation and its period, if present, and a slash line or any symbol of grouping, indicator, punctuation, or fraction line which applies to the abbreviation. A space must also not be left between two components

of an abbreviation when no space appears in ink print. A space must be left on either side of an abbreviation in all other situations.