gh Nemeth Rule Viewer
Nemeth Braille Code for Mathematics and Science
1972 Revision
skip navigation bar

Select your options:





Select your rule:



RULE IX--CONTRACTIONS AND SHORT-FORM WORDS

§55. Non-Use of Contractions and Short-Form Words:

a. Contractions and short-form words must not be used in a word, part of word, or abbreviation when it is in direct contact with any item listed below. They must also not be used before or after the space which immediately precedes or follows a sign of comparison. In the case where transition to another braille line has been made, contractions must not be used if they could not have been used without the transition. In the case of an expression containing a hyphen or dash, only that portion between the hyphen or dash and the item with which direct contact is made subject to this rule.

i. Any braille indicator other than capitalization indicators or the italic sign of English Braille.
ii. Any numeric symbol written as in Nemeth Code.
iii. The general omission symbol.
iv. A single letter.
v. Any sequence of more than one letter in which each letter has a separate identity.
vi. Any modifier symbol.
vii. The radical symbol.
viii. Any operation symbol.
ix. Any comparison symbol, even though there is a space between it and the word, part word, or abbreviation.

b. Contractions must not be used in abbreviated function names in any context. In addition, contractions must not be used in unabbreviated function names which appear in a mathematical context. In particular, the word "arc" must not be contracted when immediately preceded or followed by mathematical symbols, whether space or unspaced.

c. The contractions for to, into, and by must not be used before any of the items listed below. When the contraction for into may not be used, the contraction for "in" may nevertheless be used in "into" unless otherwise prohibited.

i. Before any of the items in a above.
ii. Before any abbreviation which consists of one letter or a combination of letters corresponding to a short-form word.
iii. Before any Roman numeral.
iv. Before a dash or ellipsis.
v. Before any reference symbol.
vi. Before a "single letter".
vii. Before a sequence of more than one letter in which each letter has a separate identity.
viii. Before any word, part word, or abbreviation in situations in which contractions are not permitted according to the other rules of this section.
ix. Before any modified expression.
x. Before any abbreviated function name or unabbreviated function name, provided that the latter occurs in a mathematical context.
xi. Before any grouping symbol.
xii. Before any of the miscellaneous symbols of Rule XXII.

d. The st and th contractions must not be used for ordinal endings when these are attached to numerals, letters, or other mathematical expressions. If an ordinal ending is composed of only one letter, follow the ink print.

e. The one-cell whole word alphabet contractions for but, can, . . . , you, as and the one-cell lower-sign whole-word contractions for be, enough, were, his, in, was, whether capitalized, italicized, or neither, must not be used when these words are in direct contact with any grouping symbol. The contractions, whole-word or part-word, for and, for, of, the, with, whether capitalized, italicized, or bold and any contraction of the types mentioned above, the rule still applies. When this rule precludes the use of a contraction in one part of a word, no part of the word may be contracted.

f. Contractions must be used when they are likely to be mistaken for mathematical expressions.

§56. Use of Contractions and Short-Form Words: Subject to the conditions of §55, the use of contractions and short-form words of English Braille must be used.